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Effects on the Immune System Opioids have been shown to have a variety of effects on components of the immune system.
The clinical significance of these findings is unknown.
Acetaminophen, 4'-hydroxyacetanilide, a slightly bitter, white, odorless, crystalline powder, is a non-opiate, non-salicylate analgesic and antipyretic.
It has the following structural formula: Codeine phosphate, 7,8-didehydro-4, 5α-epoxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan-6α-ol phosphate (1:1) (salt) hemihydrate, a white crystalline powder, is a narcotic analgesic and antitussive.
Concomitant use of opioids with benzodiazepines or other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, including alcohol, may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death (see WARNINGS, Drug Interactions).
with Codeine is supplied in tablet form for oral administration.
Propulsive peristaltic waves in the colon are decreased, while tone may be increased to the point of spasm, resulting in constipation.
Other opioid-induced effects may include a reduction in biliary and pancreatic secretions, spasm of sphincter of Oddi, and transient elevations in serum amylase.
The effects of concomitant use or discontinuation of CYP3A4 inducers, CYP3A4 inhibitors, or CYP2D6 inhibitors with codeine are complex.
Caution should be used in the elderly because paroxetine is the most sedating and anticholinergic of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors The elderly are prone to SSRI/SNRI-induced hyponatremia; monitor closely 65 years In children and young adults, risks must be weighed against the benefits of taking antidepressants Patients should be monitored closely for changes in behavior, clinical worsening, and suicidal tendencies; this should be done during the initial 1-2 months of therapy and dosage adjustments The patient’s family should communicate any abrupt changes in behavior to the healthcare provider Worsening behavior and suicidal tendencies that are not part of the presenting symptoms may require discontinuation of therapy This drug is not approved for use in pediatric patients Clinical worsening and suicidal ideation may occur despite medication in adolescents and young adults (18-24 years) Use caution in patients with bipolar disorder, seizure disorder, history of suicidal thought/behavior Life-threatening serotonin syndrome reported with SNRIs and SSRIs alone; also with concomitant use of other serotonergic drugs (including triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, buspirone, amphetamines, and St.
John’s Wort) Risk of mydriasis; may trigger angle closure attack in patients with angle closure glaucoma with anatomically narrow angles without a patent iridectomy Conflicting evidence regarding use of SSRIs during pregnancy and increased risk of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (see Pregnancy) Risk of complications such as feeding difficulties, irritability, and respiratory problems reported in neonates exposed to SNRIs/SSRIs late in third trimester Risk of cardiovascular defects in infants whose mothers took drug during early pregnancy Withdraw gradually Use lower starting dose in renal impairment (Cr Cl Pregnancy category: D Teratogenic effects: Epidemiologic studies have shown that infants exposed to paroxetine in the first trimester of pregnancy have an increased risk of congenital malformations, particularly cardiovascular malformations Use late in the third trimester associated with complications in newborns and may require prolonged hospitalization, respiratory support, and tube feeding A study of nearly 28,000 women taking SSRIs confirmed 5 previously reported birth defercts associated with paroxetine, including heart defects, anencephaly, and abdominal wall defects (BMJ 2015; 351:h3190) Several SSRIs (eg, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline) are metabolized by CYP2D6 CYP2D6 is involved in the metabolism of approximately 20% of drugs in clinical use, and it displays large individual-to-individual variability in activity due to genetic polymorphisms More than 80 CYP2D6 variant alleles have been identified; however, 4 of the most prevalent alleles, CYP2D6*3, *4, *5, and *6, account for 93-97% of CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PMs) CYP2D6*4, the most common variant (~25% frequency in whites), causes a splicing defect; CYP2D6*3 (2.7% frequency) causes a frameshift mutation; and CYP3D6*5 (2.6%) is an entire deletion of the CYP2D6 gene; individuals homozygous for these alleles have no CYP2D6 activity The impact of CYP2D6 activity is further complicated in some SSRIs (eg, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline) that in addition to being substrates for CYP2D6, are also known to moderately inhibit CYP2D6 activity The above information is provided for general informational and educational purposes only.
Chronic use of opioids may influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, leading to androgen deficiency that may manifest as low libido, impotence, erectile dysfunction, amenorrhea, or infertility.
The causal role of opioids in the clinical syndrome of hypogonadism is unknown because the various medical, physical, lifestyle, and psychological stressors that may influence gonadal hormone levels have not been adequately controlled for in studies conducted to date (see .